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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIAN AND LEVANTINE PEOPLES

 

 

Sumerians              c. 4000-2400 B.C.

 

Akkadians              c. 2400-2000 B.C.

 

Amorites                c. 2000-1550 B.C.

 

Kassites                  c. 1550-1150 B.C.

 

Mitanni                  c. 1500-1345 B.C.

 

Hittites                   c. 1800-1200 B.C.

 

Assyrians               c. 2000-612 B.C.

 

Chaldeans              c. 612-539 B.C.

 

Aramaeans             c. 1200 B.C. - ?

 

Phoenicians           c. 2500-500 B.C.

 

Philisitines             c. 1200-600’s B.C.

 

Hebrews                c. 1300 B.C. - ?

 

Lydians                 c. 680-546 B.C.

 

 

 

General pattern

 

3000-1700 B.C.   Classical stages of Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. Only small areas “civilized.”

 

1700-1500 B.C.   First massive wave of invasions into the Middle East. New peoples and technologies arrived. Larger kingdoms established.

 

1500-1100 B.C.   Hittites, Kassites, Egyptians all have major kingdoms

 

1100-800 B.C.    No great kingdoms or empires. Smaller states arise and thrive (Ex.- Israel).

 

745-612  B.C.     Assyrian empire dominated the Middle East.

 

612-539 B.C.     The Chaldean (or Neo-Babylonian) Empire.

 

539-330 B.C.     Persian Empire