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Sumerians              c. 4000-2400 B.C.


Akkadians              c. 2400-2000 B.C.


Amorites                c. 2000-1550 B.C.


Kassites                  c. 1550-1150 B.C.


Mitanni                  c. 1500-1345 B.C.


Hittites                   c. 1800-1200 B.C.


Assyrians               c. 2000-612 B.C.


Chaldeans              c. 612-539 B.C.


Aramaeans             c. 1200 B.C. - ?


Phoenicians           c. 2500-500 B.C.


Philisitines             c. 1200-600’s B.C.


Hebrews                c. 1300 B.C. - ?


Lydians                 c. 680-546 B.C.




General pattern


3000-1700 B.C.   Classical stages of Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. Only small areas “civilized.”


1700-1500 B.C.   First massive wave of invasions into the Middle East. New peoples and technologies arrived. Larger kingdoms established.


1500-1100 B.C.   Hittites, Kassites, Egyptians all have major kingdoms


1100-800 B.C.    No great kingdoms or empires. Smaller states arise and thrive (Ex.- Israel).


745-612  B.C.     Assyrian empire dominated the Middle East.


612-539 B.C.     The Chaldean (or Neo-Babylonian) Empire.


539-330 B.C.     Persian Empire