1898-1900- Failure of the Boxer Rebellion convinced the Empress Dowager that some reform along western lines would be necessary.
1905- Traditional exam system abolished. Opened flood gates to flow of new ideas..
1908- Empress Dowager (Tzu Hsi) and the emperor she dominated died. New emperor was six years old. Central government ceased to provide effective government. Widespread corruption and nepotism. National assembly created. Internal dissent increased.
1911- Military turned on the dynasty.
1912- The last emperor abdicated.
Mandate of Heaven withdrawn. No replacement dynasty. Sun Yat-sen elected
President by provisional national assembly. Sun Yat-Sen formed the Kuomintang
(National People’s Party) Sun yielded power to
The central government decayed. Most of
1915- forced to
make concessions to
1917- entered WWI on Allies’ side.
urban revolt stirred up by unhappiness with
1921- Sun Yat-sen re-elected on a platform of national freedom, democratic government, and socialist economy. Sought Western help to restore order. Turned down.
1921-1922, Chinese Communist party formed. Joint membership permitted with KMT
1923- Sun Yat-sen turned to Soviets for help. Formed military alliance. Chiang Kai-Shek in charge (Sun’s brother-in-law). KMT’s first army.
1925- Sun died. Chiang Kai-shek took over.
1926- Chiang controlled only parts of
April, 1927- Chiang moved against workers. Stalin ordered the communists to seize power. Coup attempt crushed. Mao and Chiang now split.
Sept. 1927- Mao organized peasants for
the CCP. Became a warlord in his own right. 1928-
1930- Mao purged Anti-Bolsheviks from the CCP . Formed his own secret police.
1934- KMT forced the “Long March”. KMT was prevented from further action vs. CCP by Japanese threat.
1937- Sino-Japanese war began. By 1938, KMT forced to abandon most northern ports and coastal areas.
1937-1941, CCP and KMT cooperated vs.