1798-1801 - Napoleon in
Mehmet Ali ruled in
1808-1839 - Sultan Mahmud II introduced limited reforms. (Ex.- destruction of the Janissaries)
1838 - Anglo-Turkish Commerce Agreement. English gained extensive commercial concessions.
1840’s - Early attempts at
1850’s - Crimean War
1856-1876 - Ottoman government attempted ambitious reform program on western models.
1869 - Joint
French-Egyptian effort built the
1877 - Sultan Abdul Hamid II rejected political reform. Carried out virulent anti-reform policies
for the next thirty years.
1879 - Nationalist Arabi
1880 - Revolt
of the Mahdi in the
1881 - European debt administration imposed on Ottomans
1882 - English seized
1904 - Parliament
Nationalist revolt in
1908 - Young Turks overthrew Sultan Abdul Hamid.