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Imperialism in the Near East  to 1914



1798-1801 -  Napoleon in Egypt

1805-1849 -  Mehmet Ali ruled in Egypt. Attempts to reform.

1808-1839  -  Sultan Mahmud II introduced limited reforms. (Ex.- destruction of the Janissaries)

1838           -  Anglo-Turkish Commerce Agreement. English gained extensive commercial concessions.

1821-1829   - Greece gained its independence.

1840’s        -  Early attempts at industrialization in Egypt and Anatolia failed.

1850’s        -  Crimean War

1856-1876  -  Ottoman government attempted ambitious reform program on western models.

1860         -    France granted the right to intervene in Syria

1869         -    Joint French-Egyptian effort built the Suez Canal.

1877-78    -   Russia supported Slavs in Balkans. Serbia and Romania became independent.

1877        -    Sultan Abdul Hamid II rejected political reform. Carried out virulent anti-reform policies

                                    for the next thirty years.

1879       -    Nationalist Arabi revolt in Egypt

1880       -    Revolt of the Mahdi in the Sudan

1881       -    European debt administration imposed on Ottomans

1882       -    English seized Egypt.

1904       -    Parliament established in Persia

1905       -   Nationalist revolt in Persia.

1907       -   England and Russia agreed to divide Persia into “spheres of influence”.

1908       -   Young Turks overthrew Sultan Abdul Hamid.

1911-1912   -  Italy seized Libya. Turks driven out of the Balkans altogether.