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India to World War II

 

1857-            Sepoy Mutiny

1877-            Queen Victoria made “Empress of India.”

1885-            National Indian Congress established in Bombay.

1905-            Bengal divided into Western (Hindu) and Eastern (Muslim) halves.

1908-1918-       Extremists excluded from the Congress. Indian advisory council created. Political violence increasing. Pan-Islamic movement gains ground, though Muslims loyal through WWI.

1914-1918-       Economic boom in India during the war.

1918              Failure of the monsoon brought famine; influenza epidemic killed many.

1919                            Fear of Indian nationalism and international Bolshevism led to crackdowns in

                      India. Increasing British paranoia and intransigence. First wave of demonstrations led by Gandhi. Amritsar (holy city of the Sikhs)- riot dispelled violently. 400 dead, 1000 wounded.

1920’s           Indian government trying to end financial and commercial arrangements that favored Great Britain.

1922                     Gandhi arrested for the first time.

1922-1930     Relative quiet. Disunity among reformers and revolutionaries, Hindus and Muslims.

1930                           President of the Muslim League called for a separate Muslim state in the  northwest.

1930-             Gandhi mobilized mass support for his civil disobedience. First Indian politician to be able to claim support nation-wide.

1935                  Government of India Act. Provincial government totally in Indian hands.  Work begun on creation of a future national parliament.

1939                          British viceroy proclaimed India a participant in the new world war.