British encouraged Arab
nationalism vs. Turks but making a military alliancewith
Emir Hussein, the prince of
allies signed treaties agreeing to the dismemberment of the
1916- Balfour Declaration.
1919- Mustafa Kamal’s party won election.
1922- The Turks forced the Greeks out of
1923- Parts of
Kamal carried out extensive
reforms within the new Turkish state. A secular state was formed. Extensive westernization.
Caliphate abolished. The capital moved from
1914- British alliance with Emir Hussein of
1917- Balfour Declaration
1920- Much of the Arab Middle East given to
European powers as “mandates” (Syria/Lebanon to
Nationalist revolts in
British put Hussein’s son in as king in
Nationalist resistance in
1920-1932- Jewish immigration to
1922-1936 - Nationalists continue the struggle through elections as well as terrorism.
1924- Nationalist revolts rock
1929- Arab resistance to Jewish immigration stepped up.
Rise of Hitler to power in
Twenty year treaty with
1939- British White paper on the Palestinian
issue proposed that
1918- Bolshevik revolution ended Russian influence.
1921- Reza Khan led a coup.
1921-1924- Reza Khan won a treaty from Soviets conceding all former Russian rights
and properties. Went on to defeat separatists supported by the British.
1925- The ruling shah gave up power. Reza Khan granted dictatorial power by the
National assembly. A few months later he was given the old imperial title of
Shah of Shahs.
1928-1933- Capitulations overturned. Industrialization and communication
technologies developed. The veil abolished for women and religious
Cancelled the concession held by the
Anglo-Persian Oil Company. Upheld by the
1941- Reza Khan removed from his position through a joint British/Soviet effort.