Life and institutions of pre-Revolutionary
∑ Politics- ruled by absolutist monarchs. Growing bureaucracy. Aristocratically-led armies.
∑ Economy- Agriculture based- still predominantly traditional in methods and organization
∑ slow transport
∑ low-level iron production
∑ mercantilist government policies
non-traditional economy in
∑ Society-†† Aristocratic elite revives in 18th century. Retain or gain legal privileges.
∑ Established Catholic and Protestant churches tied to state and aristocracy
∑ Urban work organized in guilds
∑ Rural peasantry still paid feudal dues, high taxes. Forced labor in east.
∑ Hierarchical society
∑ Corporate rights (Estate, village, guilds, parish, etc.). No individual rights.
∑ Limited social mobility
∑ Internal divisions: class conflict; no single standard of law, money, weights or
Signs of change:†† urbanization- population growth
††††††††††††††††††††††† †††† scientific agriculture
††††††††††††††††††††††† †††† new technologies- canals, roads, steam engine, use of coke
††††††††††††††††††††††† †††† scientific revolution/reformation changing ideas.