Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment and Technology
The Scientific Revolution
Copernicus published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium.
(heliocentric solar system)
Andreas Vesalius published Concerning the Structure of the Human
Bacon published Advancement of Learning
1609- Johannes Kepler published Astronomia
Nova (elliptical orbits)
1610- Galileo Galilei published Sidereal Messenger (observations
with the telescope)
Harvey published On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals.
(circulation of blood)
Descartes published Discourse on Method
Boyle published New Experiments Physico-Mechanical
Touching the Spring of the Air. (laws of gases)
Society of London founded.
Academy of Science founded.
Leeuwenhoek used a microscope to discover male spermatoza.
proposed the wave theory of light.
published Principia Mathematica (gravity,
published his Systema Naturae.
1789- Lavoisier published his treatise on chemistry. (modern theory of chemical
Scientific Revolution ultimately cast aside traditional knowledge and the
tradition authorities associated with that knowledge across a broad front
of endeavors pertaining to the understanding of the natural world
(including its relationship to the supernatural or to the divine).
clearer lines drawn between science, magic and religion.
Scientific Revolution helped create a mentality in Europe
which emphasized the value of human reason and the human senses as
instruments for the achievement of a full understanding of the natural world.
- As a
part of this world view came the development of a belief in mathematics,
experimentation and observation, and eventually a full-blown 'scientific
method.' This way of thinking led to a conviction that the physical
universe ran according to natural laws that were universally applicable,
consistent, and accessible to human reason.
1651- Hobbes' Leviathan
published Of Civil Government: Two Treatises.
1697- Pierre Bayle published the Historical and Critical Dictionary.
published Philosophical Letters on the English.
published The Spirit of the Laws.
1752-1780- Diderot's Encyclopedie published in thirty-five volumes.
published The Social Contract.
1776- American Declaration
Adam Smith wrote An Inquiry in the Nature
and Causes of the Wealth of Nations
Emperor Joseph II abolished serfdom, declared complete religious toleration for
Christians and Jews, and proposed a system of proportional taxation based on
1794- Condorcet wrote Sketch for a Historical Picture of the
Progress of the Human Mind.
nature, happiness, progress and liberty were key concepts of the
writers were those who applied the principles and practices of the
Scientific Revolution to the examination of mankind and of human society.
If the natural world operated according to rationally determinable natural
laws, so too must human beings and human societies as part of the natural
writers issued withering attacks on "irrational" institutions
and practices, as well as on the "superstitions" they associated
with much of conventional religion (especially Catholicism).
of the interaction between scientific theory and technological practice. Mercator (1594); mining technology; metallurgy;
optical lenses; ship building; gun powder technology.
the leader in the 17th century. England
in the 18th century. England
in the 19th century.
few Inventions of the period.
- Transportation- All-weather roads (raised grave, England,
- Clocks Pendulum clocks (1695);
Marine Chronometer, 1763
- Thermometer: Italy,
1654; Fahrenheit (d. 1763)
- Armaments: muzzle-loading guns; earthwork
coke used for smelting
- Textiles: Flying shuttle, 1733
Spinning Jenny, 1770
Spinning Mule, 1779