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The Rise of Totalitarianism, 1917-1939 A.D.


Totalitarianism- of or relating to a political regime based on the subordination of the individual to the state and strict control of all aspects of life and productive capacity of the nation especially by coercive measures (as in censorship and terrorism).


1917-          Revolution in Russia

1918-         World War I ended; Civil war in Russia.

1919-         January, leftist revolts in Germany; Weimar Republic established in Germany.

       March, Fasci formed in Italy

       Versailles Treaty signed

       Comintern formed (Third International) in Russia

       German Workers Party formed.

1920-          Right-wing putsch in Germany; Hitler joined the German Workers' Party and rose rapidly to prominence. Had the party renamed the German National Socialist Workers' Party.

1921-           Fascists first elected to the government in Italy.

1922-           October, the March on Rome brought Mussolini to power.

1923-           Runaway inflation in Germany. Beer Hall putsch; Soviet Union established.

1923-1926- Opposition groups in Italy quashed. Fascist state established: "dictatorship of the state over many classes cooperating."

1924-            Dawes Plan helped ease the economic situation in Germany.

1925-            Treaty of Locarno. Most European borders recognized and guaranteed.

1924-1925-   Hitler wrote Mein Kampf in prison.  25 Points. First Nazis elected to the Reichstag.

1926-            Germany joined the League of  Nations.

1927-            Stalin came to power in the Soviet Union.

1929-             The Great Depression began in the United States.

1930-             The Great Depression hit Germany.

1931-              Japan seized Manchuria from China.

1932-              Salazar dictatorship established in Portugal.

1933-             Hitler named Chancellor in January. Had complete political control of Germany by July.

1934-             Hitler proclaimed an end to the Weimar Republic. Third Reich established. Hitler purged the SA.

1934-1935-   “Long March” in China (Mao Zedong).

1934-1939-     Massive purges in Russia.

1935-              Nuremburg Laws implemented in Germany; Italy invaded Ethiopia.

1936-              Germany and Italy cooperated in the Spanish Civil War (backed Franco's nationalists). Stalin backed the loyalists (and lost).

1937-              Sino-Japanese War began.

1938-              Germany annexed Austria; Munich Conference.

1939-              Franco established dictatorship in Spain.  Stalin and Hitler signed non-aggression treaty; Germany invaded Poland.