Tradition and Change in Europe- 1500-1800
General trend: Enormous change in
· Traditional limited monarchies, feudal vestiges
· traditional agriculture and land usage patterns
· traditional social structure, though some increase in trade, mercantile classes, and towns.
· Warfare- armored cavalry still dominant, though beginning to fade. Private armies, etc.
· Catholic church universal.
· Catholic religious learning, and classical science unquestioned.
· Religion and politics, church and state often meshed
· Ignorant of the rest of the world.
· Very low literacy rates.
· Printing just invented.
· largely traditional technologies.
· Waiting for the end
· Nature uncontrollable, and to a large extent unknowable.
Monarchies/ reorganization of
· Scientific Revolution/Enlightenment
· Agricultural advance
· Development of capitalism
· Religion largely removed from political life.
· Catholic universalism ended. Great variety of Christian groups. Atheists and Deists, too.
· Some new technologies- ship building, roads, drainage, military. Early industrial, clocks.
· Traditional authorities challenged- discredited or relegated to narrow spheres of applicability.
· Massive increase in knowledge- faith in new knowledge
· Concept of human progress
· Confidence in human capabilities- esp. control over nature. – Modern science
· Much more literate society
· Immense increase in wealth.
· New economic practices and institutions- agricultural and commercial
· New style monarchies and states- nation states. More centralized, far greater ability to mobilize resources.