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Industrial Revolution

 

 

(First) Industrial Revolution (Nineteenth century)

 

Course

        England, 18th century-early 19th century

        Belgium, circa 1830

        U.S. and German areas, 1860ís

        Russia, circa 1890

 

Characteristics

        Coal

        Iron

        steam engine

        heavy industry

        textiles

        transportation- steam ships, railroad

        communication- telegraph (late in the process)

        agricultural advances (machinery, fertilizers, etc.)

 

 

Second Industrial Revolution (c. 1870-1914)

 

Course

        U.S. takes the industrial lead in the world.

        Germany becomes an industrial power.

 

Characteristics

        oil

        electricity

        steel

        internal combustion engine

        chemistry (ex.- synthetic products, oil processing, etc.)

        science/technology link. Deliberate invention.

        transportation- automobile, airplane

        communication- telephone, radio

 

 

Social effects

 

        Urbanization of European and American populations

        New urban working class

        Working class organizations

        Nuclear family emphasized