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History 51     Terms



Authority- from the Latin “auctoritas” meaning opinion, decision, or power. A citation used in defense or support; also: the source from which the citation is drawn; an individual cited or appealed to as an expert; power to influence or command thought, opinion or behavior; persons in command; grounds, or warrant. Authorize, to author.



Custom- a usage or practice common to many or to a particular place or class or habitual with an individual; long established practice considered as unwritten law; the whole body of usages, practices, or conventions that regulate social life.



Tradition- the handing down of information, beliefs and customs by word of mouth or by example from one generation to another without written instruction; an inherited pattern of thought or action (as a religious doctrine or practice or a social custom); cultural continuity in social attitudes and institutions.



Economists define modernization as the process by which humans have gained control over their physical environment by increasing output; sociologists and anthropologists term such features as the awakening and activation of the masses; more interested in the present and future than in the past; belief that human affairs are understandable rather than the result of supernatural manipulation; and until recently, faith in the beneficence of science and technology. McNeill suggests modernization for non-Western peoples equates with Westernization.



Globalization- creation of global networks; global human contacts; movement towards a common global culture.



Westernization- the adoption by or imposition onto non-Western peoples or cultures of features of western culture and society; the spread of western civilization to other peoples and places. 



Law of Retarding Lead- the best adapted and most successful societies have the most difficulty in adapting during a period of transition and change.



Stimulus diffusion- a process that occurs when two different peoples first come in contact- they do not adopt one another’s specific techniques or institutions completely but instead borrow underlying ideas or principles and adapt them to their specific needs; early civilizations often developed by this means.


Cultural assimilation- absorption into the cultural tradition of another group and the loss of one’s own cultural identity.



Ideology- the body of doctrine, myth, symbol, etc., of a social movement, institution, class or large group; such a body of doctrine, myth, etc., with reference to some political and cultural plan, along with the devices for putting it into operation.



Liberalism- a political or social philosophy advocating the freedom of the individual, and governmental guarantees of individual rights and civil liberties. Of or pertaining to representational forms of government rather than aristocracies and monarchies.

                   -an ideology based on the belief that people should be as free from restraint as possible. Economic liberalism in the idea that the government should not interfere in the workings of the economy. Political liberalism is the idea that there should be restraints on the exercise of power so that people can enjoy basic civil rights in a constitutional state with a representative assembly.

                  -the particular program by which the growing middle class proposed to get for itself the benefits and control it was aiming for.

                  -whose central feature is the emancipation of the individual from class, corporate, or governmental restraint.



Nationalism- allegiance to the cause of the nation rather than to the church and region as before the nineteenth century.

-         a sense of national  consciousness based on an awareness of being part of a community or a "nation" that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs, and that becomes the focus of the individual's primary political loyalty.

-         This national identity increasingly linked to the idea of a social contract

-         and the right to self-determination of a people.



Socialism- ideology calling for social and economic change and political reform; the government owns and operates the means of production and the main parts of the  economy, e.g. banks, mines, factories, railroads, foreign trade, etc.; emphasizes  community and collective welfare rather than the individual.

-         an ideology that calls for collective or government ownership of the means of production and the distribution of goods.

-         A set of political, social and economic doctrines derived at least in part from the philosophy of Karl Marx..



Totalitarianism- of or relating to a political regime based on the subordination of the individual to the state and strict control of all aspects of life and productive capacity of the nation especially by coercive measures (as in censorship and terrorism). Examples- Fascist Italy, Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Peoples Republic of China.









African Slave trade-








Scientific Revolution-








New Monarchies-








English East India Company-




Romanov dynasty (1613-1917 A.D.)-





Habsburg Dynasty  (1493-1918 A.D.)-




Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 A.D.)




Qing (Manchu, Ching) dynasty (1644-1912 A.D.)-





Emperor K’ang-hsi (1661-1722 A.D.)




Ottoman Empire (1451-1918 [1922] A.D.)-





Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-1566 A.D.)





Mughal (Mogul) Empire-  (1524-1857 A.D.)-




Akbar (1556-1605 A.D.)




Tokugawa Shogunate (1603-1868 A.D.)-




Tokugawa Ieyasu ( 1542-1616 A.D.)





French Revolution, (1789-1815 A.D)-




The Industrial Revolution -               




cotton, coal, iron; steel, chemicals, electricity-                      





urbanization - 





Charles Darwin (1809-1882 A.D.)-




Social Darwinism -                                  





Sigmund Freud,  (1856-1939 A.D.)-





Great Mutiny (Sepoy Mutiny), (1857-1858  A.D.)  -                   




Suez Canal, 1869 A.D.-




Indian Congress Party, 1885  A.D.    -             





Open Door Policy, 1898 A.D.-





Meiji Restoration, 1868-1912-                 




Mohammed Ahmad, the Mahdi, (1883-1885 A.D.)-




Berlin Conference, 1884 A.D.-                         




“Sick Man of Europe” -                           




Tanzimat Reforms, (1839-1879 A.D.)-              





Crimean War, (1853-1856 A.D.)-




Opium Wars, (1839-1842  A.D.) -                      




Boxer Rebellion, 1900 A.D.-




1904-1906 A.D., Russo-Japanese War-   








The October Revolution, 1917-              




V.I. Lenin , 1870-1924 -                                      




Joseph Stalin, 1879-1953-                       




Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1924 A.D.-





World War I, (1914-1918 A.D.)-                        




“Command technology”-




“Invention on demand”-




Multinational corporations-




Military-industrial complex-




Balfour Declaration, 1917 A.D.-




Treaty of Versailles, 1919 A.D.-                      








Young Turks, 1908  A.D.-                                




Mustafa Kamal (Ataturk), (1881-1938 A.D.)-                  





Republic of Turkey , 1923 A.D.-                                         












Great Depression, 1929 A.D.-                          




Mohandas K. Gandhi, (1869-1948 A.D.)-




Ho Chi Minh, (1890-1969 A.D.)-                       




Mao Tse-Tung (Zedong), (1893-1976  A.D.) -  




Sun Yat-sen, (1867-1925 A.D.)-                        




Fascism  -                                                




Adolf Hitler, (1889-1945 A.D.) -                     








Cold War -                                              




the Holocaust-




People's Republic of China, 1949 A.D.-       





Vietnam War, (1954-1975 A.D.)-                    




Israel, 1948 A.D.-                                         




Third World -                                        




Mikhail Gorbachev,  (1985-1991 A.D.)         




European Community -